What is Software Testing V-Model and V Model Diagram


Software Testing V-Model


As Clear from picture V-Model shows the relationships between each phase of Software Development Life Cycle(SDLC) and its associated testing phase. It’s also known as Verification and Validation model.it is a perfect way to perform testing approach. In SDLC, V-model testing should start from the beginning of the project and Development and Testing are go parallel. Verification phase is carried out Software Development Life Cycle(SDLC) and Validation phase is carried out Software Testing Life Cycle(STLC).

 Steps in V-Model Software Testing

Verification phase

  1. User Requirement: – Focuses on meeting the functionality specified in the requirements gathering. Before development is started, a plan system test is created like BRS (Business Requirement Specification) and SRS (System Requirement Specification). In this phase, product requirements are understood from the customer viewpoint. This activity is required to manage perfectly, as sometimes the customer him/herself is not sure about there requirement. This phase is handled by Business users and Business analysts.

  2. Software Application: – This Phase focuses on the complete setup of hardware and communication for the product under development. System test plan is developed based on this phase. It should be done an earlier stage of testing, so later we can get extra time for actual test execution.

  3. High-Level Design: –The data transfer and communication between the internal modules and with the outside world (other systems) is clearly understood and defined in this stage. With the help of this information, integration test cases can be designed and documented. This is also known as an architectural phase.

  4. Low-Level Design: In this phase, the detailed internal design for all the system modules is specified, it’s also known as Module Design. Based on internal Module design in this stage Unit test cases can be designed.

Coding Phase

The actual coding of the system modules designed in the design phase is taken up in the Coding phase. This is at the bottom of the V-model. The module design is converted into code by developers.

Validation Phase

  1. Unit Testing: – This is performed by programmers on an individual program. The programmer will test the start-up, validate functions and create its own data on the database.

  2. Integration Testing: This is performed to test if individual programs can communicate with one another. Its aim is to test the strength of the overall system, rather than individual business functions, e.g. Checking Login and navigation functionality working perfectly.

  3. System Testing: – This is performed by the IT project team to prove that the system works according to their understanding of the business requirements. Getting all business requirement, System test is a complete test of a testing system produced by the project team.

  4. Acceptance Testing: – In this testing, we are the testing system for acceptability via the client. In this phase of testing, we check the system with the Business requirement and report that either system is acceptable for delivery or not.

Advantages of V Model

  • Easy and simple to use.

  • Many testing activities are performed in the beginning such as planning and design which saves lots of testing time.

  • Proactive defect tracking (means found defects at an earlier stage of testing).

  • Avoids the downward flow of the defects.

  • It’s Good for small projects where we can easily understand the requirements.

Disadvantages of V Model

  • Guessing the error in the beginning of the project could take more time.

  • Less flexibility.

  • During the Implementation phase software is developed, so not any prototypes of the software are produced earlier.

  • If any changes happen in midway, then the test documents along with requirement documents had to be updated.

When the V Model should be followed

  • V-Model should be followed for a small project where requirements are clear and easy to understand at the beginning of development.

  • V-Model should be followed for the project where the fewer chances of unplanned changes in the middle of the develoment and testing phase.


“Related post”

Software Development life cycle

Software Testing Life Cycle

Test Case Documentation

Alpha and Beta Testing

Regression Testing

Smoke and Sanity Testing

Software Testing

Validation and Verification


Entry and Exit Criteria in software testing

Integration Testing 

Automation Testing


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